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Additive Name Image Description
Curcumins Curcumin is brightly yellow colored and may be used as a food coloring.
Carmines Red to dark red, crumbly solid or powder. A colouring that makes many foods red. Found in alcoholic drinks, fruit pie fillings, jams, many sweets and even cheeses.
Chlorophylls Green
Chlorophylls and chlorophyllins, copper complexes No Image
Caramel I – plain caramel No Image Dark brown to black liquids or solids having an odour of burnt sugar.
Caramel II - sulfite caramel No Image Dark brown to black liquids or solids having an odour of burnt sugar.
Caramel III - ammonia caramel No Image Dark brown to black liquids or solids having an odour of burnt sugar
Caramel IV - sulfite ammonia caramel No Image Dark brown to black liquids or solids having an odour of burnt sugar.
Vegetable carbon Black, odourless powder.
Carotenes An orange pigment found in two forms (alpha-carotene and beta-carotene) of which beta-carotene is the most common since it is found in some fruits and vegetables.
Annatto extracts A natural yellow-orange colour derived from annatto seeds which come from the achiote tree. Bixin is the name given to fat soluble portion of annatto extract while nobixin is the name given to the water soluble portion of annatto extract.
Paprika oleoresin A natural orange-red food colouring extracted from capsicum or chillies.
Luteins No Image Lutein from Latin luteus meaning "yellow", is a xanthophyll and one of 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids.
Beet red Betanin, or Beetroot Red, is a red glycosidic food dye obtained from beets; its aglycone, obtained by hydrolyzing away the glucose molecule, is betanidin.
Anthocyanins Anthocyanins occur in all tissues of higher plants, including leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and fruits. Anthoxanthins are their clear, white to yellow counterparts occurring in plants.
Calcium carbonates Calcium carbonate is the active ingredient in agricultural lime, and is usually the principal cause of hard water.
Titanium dioxide No Image White to slightly coloured powder.
Iron oxides No Image Yellow, red, brown or black powder.
Potassium ascorbate It is the potassium salt of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and a mineral ascorbate.
Tocopherols No Image Tocopherols (or TCP) are a class of chemical compounds of which many have vitamin E activity.
Tertiary butylhydroquinone No Image White, crystalline solid having a characteristic odour.
Butylated hydroxyanisole No Image White or slightly yellow crystals or waxy solid, with a faint characteristic odour.
Magnesium lactate, DL- Added to some food and beverages as an acidity regulator and labeled as E329.
Sodium citrates No Image
Potassium citrates As a food additive, potassium citrate is used to regulate acidity.
Calcium citrates It is commonly used as a food additive (E333), usually as a preservative, but sometimes for flavor.
Potassium phosphates Potassium phosphate is a generic term for the salts of potassium and phosphate ions.
Calcium phosphates Calcium phosphate is used in baking as a raising agent. It is also used in cheese products.
Magnesium phosphates Magnesium phosphate is a general term for salts of magnesium and phosphate .
Magnesium citrate It is also used as a magnesium supplement in pills.
Calcium malates It is the calcium salt of malic acid.
Adipic acid Small but significant amounts of adipic acid are used as a food ingredient as a flavorant and gelling aid.
Calcium fumarates It is a calcium salt of fumaric acid.
Ferric ammonium citrate It is a green or reddish-brown powder which is very soluble in water.
Agar No Image Agar (agar-agar) can be used as a laxative, a vegetarian gelatin substitute, a thickener for soups, in fruit preserves, ice cream, and other desserts, as a clarifying agent in brewing, and for sizing paper and fabrics.
Carob bean gum No Image White to yellowish white, nearly odourless powder.
Guar gum White to yellowish-white, nearly odourless, free-flowing powder.
Tragacanth gum No Image The unground gum occurs as flattened, lamellated, straight or curved fragments or as spirally twisted pieces 0.5 - 2.5 mm thick and up to 3 cm in length; white to pale yellow, but some pieces may have a red tinge; the pieces are horny in texture, with a short fracture; odourless.
Gum arabic (Acacia gum) No Image Gum arabic, also known as acacia gum, chaar gund, char goond, or meska, is a natural gum made of hardened sap taken from two species of the acacia tree; Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal.
Xanthan gum Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide, derived from the bacterial coat of Xanthomonas campestris, used as a food additive and rheology modifier,[2] commonly used as a food thickening agent (in salad dressings, for example) and a stabilizer (in cosmetic products, for example, to prevent ingredients from separating).
Tara gum No Image White to white-yellow, nearly odourless powder.
Gelatin Gelatin (or gelatine) is a translucent, colorless, brittle (when dry), flavorless solid substance, derived from the collagen inside animals' skin and bones.
Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate No Image Lemon to amber coloured oily liquid at 25o, with a faint characteristic odour.
Pectins No Image It is produced commercially as a white to light brown powder, mainly extracted from citrus fruits, and is used in food as a gelling agent particularly in jams and jellies.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Cellulose gum) No Image White or slightly yellowish, almost odourless hygroscopic granules, powder or fine fibres.
Mono- and di- glycerides of fatty acids No Image
Lactic and fatty acid esters of glycerol No Image Waxy solids of variable consistency and conforms to the following specifications.
Citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol No Image White to ivory coloured, oily to waxy material.
Polyglycerol esters of interesterified ricinoleic acid No Image Highly viscous liquids.
Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids No Image White or cream coloured solids of waxy appearance, plastic products or viscous liquids.
Calcium chloride As a firming agent calcium chloride is used in canned vegetables, in firming soy bean curds into tofu and in producing a caviar substitute from vegetable or fruit juices.
Magnesium chloride Magnesium chloride (E511[8]) is an important coagulant used in the preparation of tofu from soy milk.
Ammonium sulfate Ammonium sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also ammonium sulphate in British English), (NH4)2SO4, is an inorganic salt with a number of commercial uses.
Sodium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye and caustic soda, is a caustic metallic base.
Potassium hydroxide No Image White or nearly white pellets, flakes, sticks, fused masses or other forms.
Calcium hydroxide It is a colourless crystal or white powder and is obtained when calcium oxide (called lime or quicklime) is mixed, or "slaked" with water.
Glucono delta-lactone Glucono delta-lactone (GDL) is a naturally-occurring food additive with the E number E575[3] used as a sequestrant, an acidifier, or a curing, pickling, or leavening agent.
Calcium gluconate Calcium gluconate is a mineral supplement.
Ferrous gluconate Fine yellowish-grey or pale greenish-yellow powder or granules having a slight odour resembling that of burnt sugar.
Ferrous lactate Greenish white crystals or light green powder having a weak, characteristic smell.
Urea (Carbamide) It is solid, colourless, and odorless (although the ammonia that it gives off in the presence of water, including water vapor in the air, has a strong odor).
Acesulfame potassium Odourless, white crystalline powder.
Sucralose (Trichlorogalactosucrose) Sucralose is a highly heat-stable artificial sweetener, allowing it to be used in many recipes with little or no sugar.
Polydextroses No Image White to light tan-coloured solid. Polydextroses dissolve in water to give clear, colourless to straw-coloured solutions.
Propylene glycol It is a colorless, nearly odorless, clear, viscous liquid with a faintly sweet taste, hygroscopic and miscible with water, acetone, and chloroform.

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